If you’re contemplating why you’d even need a transparent smartphone, don’t bother thinking too hard for you do not actually need one. There would be many downsides to such a phone; think of how difficult it would be to find it especially if it were powered down, not to mention being literally “transparent” means everything you’re working on will be easily exposed to others. Yet, if you take a harder look at the subject, you’ll find that the state of being non-transparent, or let’s say opaque, is indeed the more fragile state to be in. Once transparency is possessed by nature, opacity can be obtained just like any other option under the menu, while this does not go vice versa. Polytron Technologies from Taiwan are developing a prototype device in a bid to make the transparent smartphone a reality.
There are two creatures that have the unique ability to extract pigment-free color directly from the quantum, so to speak, and those are butterflies and jellyfish. These two obscure yet magnificent creatures can do so through precisely configured scales or undulating cilia- tiny hairs that protrude from a larger cell. These bio-antennea are used to bling out a calculated photon whenever the distance between thee hairs corresponds to the wavelength of the illumination that strikes them. Sometimes when creatures are stuck in a cave, they instantly turn down their pigment production and thus losing all ability to express it even after a couple of generations have passed. This is all for a beneficial reason since light-absorbing melanins and carotenoids are metabolically expensive to produce and actuate into position.
Yet, if we take larger creatures, such as in our case Smartphones, there are tons of elements that arise to obstruct transparency. For instance, the lens of the eye ought to burn a non-trivial amount of energy just to sustain transparency. In order to transform a large scale device to a transparent one, the first thing you ought to do is consider the smaller parts that comprise it and making those transparent. While you might think this is rather obvious, you’ll have neglected the fact that it isn’t enough to just put those transparent parts together to achieve your goal. The most challenging task you’ll have is to gain a smooth variation in the refractive indexes across the sub components.
Nowadays we can enjoy a variety of transparent display options that are available, and new methods are emerging all the time. One way to achieve this is to coat two pieces of glass with transparent yet conductive material sucha s indium tin oxide (ITO), and sandwich a gel of polarizable molecules between them. Once an electric field is applied, the liquid crystal changes its alignment and becomes transparent or non transparent, adhering to the materials that are used.
The display is not the issue for the Polytron phone which flaunts an OLED-based liquid crystal device. The problem lies in the smaller components, such as the battery and the memory. Transparent lithium-ion batteries have been formerly introduced based on PDMS; a favorite polymer material that is often used in the life sciences to build transparent microfluidic sensors and Polutron plans to incorporate these kinds of batteries in future versions of the phone. Transparent speakers and touchscreens will also be used on both sides of the final product.
Astronomers have witnessed one of the rarest and most extreme galaxy clusters in the universe! That’s not all; behind it, they have found an object that ought not exist!
Using NASA’s Hubble Space Telescope, cosmologists have uncovered an extremely massive cluster of galaxies existing 10 billion light-years away and behind them, an obscure arc of light. The galactic cluster that had been uncovered by NASA’s Spitzer Space Telescope, formed during an era when the universe was a quarter of its existing age of 13.7 billion years.
The humongous arc is the expanded shape of a more remote galaxy whose light is tarnished by the powerful gravity of this huge cluster; this is an effect called “gravitational lensing”. In case you’re wondering what galaxy clusters actually are, well they are collections of galaxies that orbit one another and are the most massive objects in the universe. What is troubling though is the fact that this arc should not exist in the first place.
“When I first saw it, I kept staring at it, thinking it would go away,” said study leader Anthony Gonzalez of the University of Florida in Gainesville, whose team includes researchers from NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. “According to a statistical analysis, arcs should be extremely rare at that distance. At that early epoch, the expectation is that there are not enough galaxies behind the cluster bright enough to be seen, even if they were ‘lensed,’ or distorted by the cluster. The other problem is that galaxy clusters become less massive the further back in time you go. So it’s more difficult to find a cluster with enough mass to be a good lens for gravitationally bending the light from a distant galaxy.”
The latest uncovered cluster, named IDCS J1426.5+3508, is extraordinary because during this period in cosmic history, massive collections of galaxies were just starting to formulate. There has been only one other cluster of comparable size, spotted at such distance, but its weight is light when measured to the latest cluster.
What’s even more ambiguous and puzzling about this new found galaxy is the bizarre arc of blue light spotted right behind it. Astronomers believe this is an indication of yet another huge star-forming galaxy located further away at an even earlier era.
Astronomers aspire to comprehend how these objects came to exist in order to designate the actual history of galactic evolution. An x-ray telescope that is scheduled to launch the upcoming year (called eRosita mission) might bring the team answers and information about these peculiar findings.
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